BYPASS SURGERY IN BANGLADESH: WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is a form of heart surgery that improves blood circulation in the heart muscle. It is a surgical procedure for patients with serious coronary heart disease (CHD), also known as coronary artery disease. A healthy artery or vein from the patient’s own body is grafted to the blocked coronary artery during CABG.
The grafted artery or vein circumvents (or bypasses) the blocked part of the coronary artery. This opens up a new passage, allowing oxygen-rich blood to bypass the blockage and reach the heart muscle. This article will provide an overview of bypass surgery in Bangladesh and its current state of success.
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND CARDIAC SURGERY IN BANGLADESH
Bangladesh is a South Asian country with more than 170 million people living only in an area of 148460 square kilometers. Bangladesh has experienced a significant increase in the prevalence of noncommunicable chronic diseases and associated mortality in the last few decades. Rapid urbanization took place in Bangladesh in the past few decades due to its fast economic growth, and recently, it has emerged as a developing country.
The results of this growth and urbanization increase the concern that a further rise in the chronic disease burden may be seen due to habituation of a sedentary lifestyle (changing food habits including growing access to and demand for processed food, inconsistent meal times, and reduced physical activity). Epidemiological studies have shown not only a high Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence but also a significant increase in its prevalence in Bangladesh in the last few decades.
Besides conventional risk factors for different CVD, genetic predisposition and some novel issues like high salt intake, arsenicosis, hypovitaminosis D and air pollution may play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of CVD in this population. Formulation of appropriate policy and more emphasis on preventive strategy may help combat CVD in Bangladesh.
The approach to cardiovascular disease management is more preventive than cure. The possible treatment options for the management of CVDs are vasodilators, beta-blockers, lipid-lowering agents, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, etc. There are many types of heart surgery. Common surgery performed in Bangladesh is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). CABG: it is a surgical procedure used in which the blocked portion of the coronary artery is bypassed with another piece of the blood vessel.
Types of bypass surgery:
- Total arterial bypass
- Midcab Bypass Surgery
- Venous bypass surgery
- Redo Bypass Surgery
- Beating heart bypass surgery
- Conventional bypass surgery
The first-ever open-heart operation in Bangladesh was performed on the 18th of September 1981. Although a few cases of finger fracture closed mitral commissurotomies were performed in the country in the 1960s and 1970s, full-fledged cardiac surgical services began only in Bangladesh after the establishment of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases at Dhaka in 1978.
A Japanese team that includes cardiac surgeons, anesthetists, cardiologists, nurses, and technicians came to Bangladesh and played an important role in the initiation of such a Bangladeshi endeavor. Since then, cardiac surgery in Bangladesh has made significant progress although it may not be enough to serve 170 million people.
In 2019, twenty-nine centers performed a total of 12926 cases in Bangladesh. Remarkable advancement in cardiac surgery has been made in terms of cost, quality, and excellence in Bangladesh. Many patients get Cardiothoracic treatment done in Bangladesh because of, the availability of well-established & international standard cardiac centers in Dhaka, Qualified & highly experienced cardiac surgeons, multidisciplinary service, and cardiothoracic costs in Bangladesh are affordable.